Describe the process of action potential conduction and neurotransmission from one neuron to another, both electrically (including saltatory conduction) and chemically.

All essay questions require a minimum of 300 words of content analysis (not including the citations and references). Quoting is not permitted. All answers must be paraphrased in your own words.

Describe the process of action potential conduction and neurotransmission from one neuron to another, both electrically (including saltatory conduction) and chemically. Describe how a cell fires an action potential and be sure to address which structures are involved in neurotransmission. Discuss reuptake and enzymatic degradation (breakdown) in the context of the appropriate neurotransmitters.

Trace in detail the structure and function of the visual system from the physical stimuli (light waves), to the structure of the eye and through the corresponding brain structures until it is processed as visual information. You will need to compare photoreceptors in darkness to photoreceptors receiving light and describe how light energy is transduced into neural signals. Describe how the trichromatic and opponent-process theory explain how light of different wavelengths is converted into color information.

Discuss some of the methodological approaches that can be used to examine the influence of multiple genes on behavior. Then discuss what transgenic animals are and how they are produced.

What is the medial forebrain bundle? Discuss the evidence for and against its involvement in reward. In addition, review the evidence showing that the brain’s dopamine pathways are critically involved in pleasure and reward.

What is the monoamine theory of depression? What evidence supports this hypothesis as a cause of affective disorder? It generally takes 2-3 weeks of chronic treatment before an antidepressant begins to have a clinical benefit, yet the drug’s pharmacological effect (for example, its inhibition of MOA, or reuptake) is immediate. What synaptic mechanisms may underlie this time lag?


 

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